The earliest are written in variants of epigraphic south Arabian musnad script, including the 8th century BCE Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, the 6th century BCE Lihyanite texts of southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai not in reality connected with Thamud.
DJ Jazzy Jeffwho is also a record producermanipulating a record turntable in England in In the s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to develop in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing or MCing over "breakbeats," house parties and neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities, particularly police and prisons. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at Sedgwick Avenue, the movement later spread across the entire borough.
He extended the beat of a record by using two record players, isolating the percussion "breaks" by using a mixer to switch between the two records. Herc's experiments with making music with record players became what we now know as breaking or " scratching.
Emceeing is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, delivered at first without accompaniment and later done over a beat.
This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping," a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners. MCing and rapping performers moved back and forth between the predominance of toasting songs packed with a mix of boasting, 'slackness' and sexual innuendo and a more topical, political, socially conscious style.
The MC would introduce the DJ and try to pump up the audience. The MC spoke between the DJ's songs, urging everyone to get up and dance.
MCs would also tell jokes and use their energetic language and enthusiasm to rev up the crowd. Eventually, this introducing role developed into longer sessions of spoken, rhythmic wordplay, and rhyming, which became rapping.
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By hip hop music had become a mainstream genre. It spread across the world in the s with controversial "gangsta" rap. This form of music playback, using hard funk and rock, formed the basis of hip hop music. Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping.
He dubbed his dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls," or simply b-boys and b-girls. According to Herc, "breaking" was also street slang for "getting excited" and "acting energetically"  DJ Kool Herc is a pioneer in developing hip hop music.
Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika Bambaataa founded the Zulu Nationa loose confederation of street-dance crews, graffiti artists, and rap musicians. By the late s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled "B Beats Bombarding Bronx", commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such as Kool Herc.
As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside of the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding rate from onward. Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy.
MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting". Billboard Hot —the song itself is usually considered new wave and fuses heavy pop music elements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end.
InKurtis Blow released his self-titled debut album featuring the single " The Breaks ", which became the first certified gold rap song. Instead of simply rapping over disco beats, Bambaataa and producer Arthur Baker created an electronic sound using the Roland TR drum machine and sampling from Kraftwerk.
InHashim created the influential electro funk tune " Al-Naafiysh The Soul ", while Warp 9's " Light Years Away ""a cornerstone of early 80s beat box afrofuturism ", introduced socially conscious themes from a Sci-Fi perspective, paying homage to music pioneer Sun Ra.
Pioneers such as Doug E. Fresh Biz Markie and Buffy from the Fat Boys made beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts. The appearance of music videos changed entertainment: These films expanded the appeal of hip hop beyond the boundaries of New York.
Byyouth worldwide were embracing the hip hop culture. The hip hop artwork and "slang" of US urban communities quickly found its way to Europe, as the culture's global appeal took root.
Nevertheless, as gangsta rap became the dominant force in hip hop music, there were many songs with misogynistic anti-women lyrics and many music videos depicted women in a sexualized fashion.
The negation of female voice and perspective is an issue that has come to define mainstream hip hop music.Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late s.
The origins of the word are often disputed. It is also argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is often used to refer exclusively to hip hop music (also called rap), hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four.
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The situations in Libya and Syria are testimony to this. Along with the Al-Sauds they are attempting to spread “ fitna ” or division amongst the peoples of Southwest Asia and North Africa.
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